A huge monolithic rock outcrop protruding from the sandy red plains of central Australia, traditionally believed by Aboriginal Yankuntjatjara and Pitjantjara communities to have been built of mud by spirits in the Dreaming. It has become the focus of many beliefs and traditions, its folds, indentations, protuberances, and overhangs, and the billabongs around its base being held to reflect the activities of its creators: cooking, eating, digging, hunting, and fighting. Originally part of an Aboriginal reserve because of its spiritual importance, Uluru was made into a National Park in 1958. After much negotiation, however, it was returned in 1985 to Aboriginal people, who now have a central role in its management. Figurative rock art in the Panaramitee Tradition occurs as rock paintings of tracks at Uluru, and there are eye‐witness accounts of blood marks mixed with ochre along the back wall of the initiation cave, a men's sacred site to which all public access is now forbidden.
R. R. Layton, 2001, Uluru: an Aboriginal history of Ayers Rock. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press