Publishing house formed in Vienna 1901 by amalgamation of several privately‐owned businesses. In 1904 bought Munich firm of Aibl which brought in many R. Strauss works. Other firms were absorbed and after Alfred Kalmus joined the firm in 1909 the catalogue was extended to include a large number of contemporary composers (Delius, Bartók, Mahler, Schoenberg, Webern, Zemlinsky, Szymanowski, and Janáček among them). Since the Second World War the firm has published works by Berio, Birtwistle, Boulez, Dallapiccola, Einem, Kagel, Kurtag, Ligeti, Shostakovich, and Stockhausen. Universal Edn. (London) was founded by Kalmus in 1937 and is an independent house.