The phrase can mean health of people in urban areas or the health of ecosystems in and around urban areas. In the sense of human health in urban areas, the concerns include the social well-being and the health problems of populations that may include high proportions of broken families, families living in poverty, isolated old and infirm people, homeless people, and transient and street people. In environmental and ecosystem health terms, high-density urban areas may be afflicted with smog and other environmental problems such as industrial waste dumps, brownfields, and suspect water supplies. Urban and municipal public health departments in Europe and North and South America work in collaboration with other sectors, agencies, and services to minimize adverse outcomes, both for the population and for the urban environment. The result is often that the health indicators of people in urban areas are better than those of rural residents.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.