The strongest bond; from the Quran 2:256. Name of a journal jointly published by Muhammad Abduh and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani in Paris in 1884. Was used to disseminate Afghani's reformist reinterpretation of Islam and advocacy of resistance to European colonialism in the Muslim world. Greatly influenced later Muslim reformists, most notably Muhammad Rashid Rida. Was published for seven months, a total of eighteen issues. Marks the debut of Islamic periodical literature.