An Indian monk.possibly of south Indian origin, who was later active as a translator and ritual master in China. After a thorough training in Yogācāra doctrines, he is said to have received initiation into the Sarva-tathāgata-tattva-saṃgraha system of tantric Buddhism in 702 from Nāgabodhi. Later, acting on a vision, he set sail for China and eventually arrived at Canton in 720 ce. Unfortunately, he lost all the texts he was carrying with him in a shipwreck en route and was only able to translate a portion from memory when he settled in Lo-yang in 723. In the subsequent years of his residence in China, he translated and composed a substantial amount of other texts concerned with tantric Buddhism as well as gaining the attention of the emperor to whom he gave tantric initiations. Together with his disciple, Amoghavajra, he is counted among the eight patriarchs in the Japanese Shingon lineage.