(b Rotterdam, 1870; d Munich, 1932).
Dutch bass‐baritone. Sang Wotan at Bayreuth 1897 and thereafter at every fest. until 1902. Sang Wagner roles at CG 1898–1908, 1912–13, and NY Met 1898–1908 (except one season). Sang Amfortas in unauthorized Parsifal, NY 1903, and was banned from Bayreuth. Finest male Wagnerian of his generation, and equally good in Lieder. Retired 1913.