One of the two major divisions of the Viśiṣṭādvaita (Śrī Vaiṣṇava) school of philosophy. It was formed in a 13th century ce, largely as the result of differing interpretations of Rāmānuja's prapatti (‘surrender’) doctrine. Referred to as the ‘northern’ division, and associated with the theologian Vedāntadeśika, the Vaṭakalai regarded liberation as not simply dependent on the freely given grace (prasāda) of the deity, but also on the prior actions (karma) of the devotee, a position compared to a young monkey making the effort to cling to its mother's body. Kāñcīpuram is an important centre for the Vaṭakalais. See also Teṉkalai.