French architect. A pupil of A. -F. Peyre, his early unexecuted designs demonstrated a concern for stereometrical purity that was a feature of late-C18 French Neo-Classicism, perhaps influenced by Boullée and anticipating works by Ledoux. In 1793, with L. -P. Baltard and J. -D. Leroy he founded a special School of Architecture that was to evolve into the École des Beaux-Arts. He was an important and influential teacher, and began (1838) the conversion of the Priory of St-Martin-des-Champs, Paris, into the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers (1845). With Baltard and others he published designs for the Grands Prix (1806–34), and he himself published many works.
AH, iii (1960), 17–180;Bergdoll (1994a);Middleton & Watkin (1987);Placzek (ed.) (1892);W. Papworth (1892);Sturgis et al. (1901–2);Jane Turner (1892)