Roman emperor ad 161–169, was born in 130 and named Lucius Ceionius Commodus, son of Lucius Aelius Caesar. On Aelius' death, Hadrian required his second choice as heir, Antoninus Pius, to adopt Lucius along with his own nephew Marcus Aurelius; he now had the names Lucius (Aelius) Aurelius Commodus, but unlike Marcus did not become Caesar. He became consul in 154 and was consul again in 161 with Marcus, who, following the death of Antoninus, at once made him co‐emperor. He dropped the name Commodus, taking his adoptive brother's name Verus instead. He was thus the first joint Augustus, equal in all respects except for the position of pontifex maximus. When the Parthians invaded the empire, he took nominal command of the ensuing Parthian War (162–166), in fact waged by his generals. In 164 he went to Ephesus to marry Marcus' daughter Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, by whom he had several children. For his victories he assumed the titles Armeniacus, Parthicus, and Mēdicus, and held a triumph jointly with Marcus in October 166. He reluctantly accompanied Marcus to the Danubian provinces in 168, to prepare for an offensive against the threatening German tribes, but, alarmed by the spread of plague in winter‐quarters at Aquileia, persuaded Marcus to set out for Rome in January 169; on the journey he suffered a stroke and died a few days later. He was deified as divus Verus.
Subjects: Classical Studies.