Ruler of the kingdom of Sardinia (1849–61) and king of Italy (1861–78). His appointment of Cavour as Premier in 1852 hastened the drive towards Italian unification. In 1859 Victor Emmanuel led his Piedmontese army to victory against the Austrians at the battles of Magenta and Solferino, and in 1860 entered the papal territories around French-held Rome to join his forces with those of Garibaldi. After being crowned first king of a united Italy in Turin in 1861, Victor Emmanuel continued to add to his kingdom, acquiring Venetia in 1866 and Rome in 1870.
Subjects: World History.