Victorian cities

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The 19th century witnessed a huge rise in †population and the phenomenal growth not only of London, but of industrial cities such as Belfast, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, and Sheffield, and many other towns in northern and midland England. The problems of urban housing and public health were enormous, but these cities also provided new recreational and intellectual opportunities as civic pride was expressed in town and city halls, theatres, concert halls, museums and art galleries, parks and squares, and civic universities. Victorian cities were also the scene of great political struggles. See Asa Briggs, Victorian Cities (1963), H. J. Dyos and M. Wolff (eds), The Victorian City: Images and Realities (2 vols, 1973), Peter Sanders, English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century (1984), and, for a comprehensive study of one large city, Clyde Binfield et al., The History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993 (3 vols, 1993).

Subjects: History.

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