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A 4% solution of acetic acid; the product of two fermentations, first with yeast to convert sugars into alcohol, then this liquor, called gyle (6–9% alcohol), is fermented with Acetobacter spp. to form acetic acid. The film of bacteria in the mixture is known as mother of vinegar.

In most countries vinegar is made from grape juice (wine vinegar; may be from red, white, or rosé wine).

Malt vinegar is made from malted barley and may be distilled to a colourless liquid. Cider vinegar (simply known as vinegar in the USA) is made from apple juice; vinegars may be flavoured with a variety of herbs. Non-brewed condiment (once called non-brewed vinegar) is a solution of acetic acid, 4–8%, coloured with caramel. Balsamic vinegar is made from grape juice that has been concentrated over a low flame and fermented slowly in a series of wooden barrels; made in and around Modena, Italy.

Subjects: Medicine and Health — Cookery, Food, and Drink.

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