A classical study undertaken between 1945 and 1953 in the Vipeholm Hospital, Sweden, to investigate the relationship between caries and the ingestion of sugar. It concluded that the risk of sugar increasing caries activity is greatest if the sugar is consumed between meals and is in the form in which the tendency to be retained on the surfaces of the teeth is pronounced with a transiently high concentration of sugar on those surfaces. This study would now be considered to be unethical.
Gustafsson B. E., Quensel C. E., Lanke L. S., Lundqvist C., Grahhen H., Bonow B. E., Krasse B. The Vipeholm Dental Caries Study. The effect of different levels of carbohydrate intake on caries activity in 436 individuals observed for five years. Acta Odont Scand 1954;11: 232–364.