The abbreviated and more popularly used form of viva voce, an oral examination used as a matter of course in the assessment process for higher degrees, notably the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.) and Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.), but also for other examinations, particularly where the candidate's result is borderline. A panel for the Ph.D. viva will consist of a minimum of two examiners who are recognized experts in the candidate's field. At least one of them will be appointed from outside the university or higher education institution where the candidate is registered. He or she is known as the external examiner. In addition, at least one will be appointed from inside the institution, and is known as the internal examiner. The candidate is required to defend his or her thesis in the face of questions from the examiners. Some institutions now also appoint an internal member of staff as chair in order to ensure that the viva is conducted in accordance with institutional regulations. See also doctorate.