Any meaningful variation in the sound of the voice during talk. These include: vocal qualifiers (rate, rhythm, duration, pitch, tone, articulation, loudness, pauses); vocalizations; and vocal characterizers (laughing, crying, yawning, coughing, and so on). A sarcastic intonation can mark an utterance as ironic. Vocal cues signify dominance, trustworthiness, dynamism, likeableness, and competence more effectively than facial expression. Louder, faster, and deeper voices are associated with dominance. See also back-channel; filled pauses; paralanguage; prosody.
Subjects: Media Studies.