Livinus Voghelarius

(fl. 1551—1568)

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(fl 1551–68). Flemish painter, active in England. He was presumably the painter Lieven de Vogeleer who became a freeman of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1551, but is known by only one work, the Memorial of Lord Darnley (Edinburgh, Pal. Holyroodhouse, Royal Col.), commissioned in London in January 1568 by Darnley's parents, Matthew and Margaret Stewart, 4th or 12th Earl and Countess of Lennox. It is a ‘revenge’ picture, of a type specifically Scottish and without parallel in England, and the iconography has been worked out with extreme care. Ten Latin and three English inscriptions emphasize the message: that the murder at Kirk o’Field of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, in February 1567 must be avenged and that the murderer Bothwell and his associates acted with the consent of Darnley's wife, Mary Queen of Scots. The effigy of Darnley is represented in armour lying on an elaborate sarcophagus before an altar, on the step of which is the signature Livinus Voghelarius. In the middle foreground kneels the infant James VI (future James I of England), a scroll issuing from his mouth praying God to avenge his father's innocent blood, and to the right kneel his grandparents and uncle Charles with similar scrolls. In the lower left corner is an inset picture showing Mary surrendering to the confederate lords of Scotland at Carberry in June 1567, with Bothwell—whom she had married in May—riding away in the distance; the landscape is Flemish in character. Some of the more offensive inscriptions about Mary have been obliterated, perhaps when James I began the rehabilitation of his mother's memory; they can be reconstructed from a version at Goodwood House, W. Sussex.

From The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Renaissance Art.

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