Finnish philosopher and successor of Wittgenstein in his chair in Cambridge. Von Wright was born in Helsinki, and attended the university there. Attracted to logical positivism, he visited Vienna, but because of the Anschluss settled in Cambridge, studying with both Broad and Wittgenstein. He taught in Helsinki, but in 1948 returned to Cambridge, holding the chair for three years until Wittgenstein's death, after which he returned to Helsinki. Von Wright was a founder of deontic logic, and in later years an engaged critic of the modern world and notions of social progress, having shared with Wittgenstein a taste for the pessimism of Spengler. His works include An Essay in Modal Logic (1950) and A Treatise on Induction and Probability (1951), The Varieties of Goodness (1963), and Explanation and Understanding (1971).