(b 1835; d 1909)
Russian diplomat, theatre director, and designer. He was director of the Russian Imperial Theatres from 1881 to 1899 and was responsible for commissioning Tchaikovsky's scores for The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, as well as many Petipa ballets. He also designed the costumes for about 25 ballets, including The Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker, and Raymonda. After he left the Imperial Theatres he was appointed Director of the Imperial Hermitage, a post he held until his death.