A Surrealist journal edited by David Hare and published in New York, 1942–4 (four issues), during which period it was a rallying point for the European Surrealists who had taken refuge from the Second World War in the USA. Two of these exiles, André Breton and Max Ernst, were editorial advisers to the journal, and they were joined from the second issue by Marcel Duchamp. The journal's subheading was ‘Poetry, Plastic Arts, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology’, and the title was explained by Breton as a reference to a rather obscure passage containing the words Victory, View, and Veil. VVV was carefully produced, but because of wartime conditions it was necessarily less luxurious than Minotaure, its predecessor as the main Surrealist journal. It continued Minotaure's practice of having specially commissioned covers: no. 1 was designed by Ernst; the double issue 2 and 3 by Duchamp; and no. 4 by Matta.