(Berlin, 1878–1941, Saratov, Volga), was from 1903 to 1912 married to Else Lasker-Schüler, who suggested both his pseudonym and the title of his periodical. In 1910 he founded and edited Der Sturm, and was prominent in furthering the more extreme experiments of Expressionism. His creative work (he published three novels and ten plays 1916–31) was less important, but his essays include Das Begriffliche in der Dichtung and Kritik der vorexpressionistischen Dichtung (both in Der Sturm, 1919) and also Die neue Malerei (1920). In 1932 he went to Russia, where he subsequently remained in exile. He is noted for his con-tribution to the Expressionismusdebatte (also known as Realismusdebatte) through his tract Vulgär-Expressionismus, which appeared in February (Heft 2) 1938 in Das Wort (ed. by Brecht, L. Feuchtwanger, and Willi Bredel, 1901–64), published 1936–9 in Moscow; he strongly rejected the notion that Expressionism prepared the way for fascism. (See Lukács, G., and Mann, K.) He died during imprisonment in Saratov. Gesammelte Schriften (2 vols.) appeared in 1916 and 1923, Gesammelte Tonwerke in 1919.
From The Oxford Companion to German Literature in Oxford Reference.