A Roman frontier‐wall 59 km. (37 mi.) long, running from Bridgeness on the Forth to Old Kilpatrick on the Clyde, built for Antoninus Pius in ad 139–142 by Lollius Urbicus. The wall was of turf, standing upon a cobbled foundation. Some seventeen forts were built from one end to the other. The Antonine wall is structurally an advance upon Hadrian's turf wall (see wall of hadrian) in its economy of material and rubble foundation, allowing better drainage, while its garrison was distributed in small close‐spaced forts instead of large forts and milecastles.
Subjects: Classical Studies.