Chinese statesman, chief councillor to the Song (1069–76). He introduced major financial and administrative reforms and reorganized local policing and the militia, known collectively as the “New Policies”. The prices of commodities were stabilized and farmers benefited from reduced land tax, low‐interest state loans, and a reduction in the levy that replaced forced labour. There was much opposition to his reforms, particularly from officials and landowners, and he was dismissed in 1076. Many of his reforms were reversed shortly thereafter.
Subjects: World History.