known as a writer under the pseudonym of ‘Mark Rutherford’, entered the Civil Service in 1854. He supplemented his income by parliamentary and literary journalism, and in 1881 published The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford, Dissenting Minister. Rutherford, born in a small Midlands town, attends a Dissenting college and then becomes a minister, but is beset both by theological doubts and by distress at the narrowness and hypocrisy of his colleagues and congregations. Loneliness makes him an easy prey to melancholy, and he gradually loses his faith. It is a compact and powerful account of the progress of 19th‐cent. doubt. Other imaginative works followed, including Mark Rutherford's Deliverance (1885), The Revolution in Tanner's Lane (1887), Miriam's Schooling and other Papers (1893), Catherine Furze (1893), and Clara Hopgood (1896). His other pseudonymous works include Pages from a Journal (1900, essays and stories), More Pages from a Journal (1910), and Last Pages from a Journal (1915); works published under his own name include a life of Bunyan (1905).