First cardinal‐archbishop of Westminster. Born of Irish parents in Seville, Wiseman was educated in Co. Durham and at the English College, Rome, where he later became rector (1828–44) and titular bishop (1840). Pius IX sent Wiseman as pro‐vicar‐apostolic to the London district in 1848 and then (1850) appointed him cardinal, intending to restore the English catholic hierarchy with Wiseman as archbishop. So great was English resentment that Parliament passed the Ecclesiastical Titles Act (1851), prohibiting catholics from assuming episcopal territorial titles. Wiseman's moderation assuaged suspicions; the Act was repealed (1871) without ever being invoked.