(b Berlin, 1902; d NY, 1972).
Ger.‐born composer (Amer. cit. 1944). Wrote th. mus. for Brecht in 1920s and was ardent radical socialist, writing works on political themes. Went to Austria 1933, then to Palestine 1934–8 (prof. of comp. at Cons.), finally to USA. Taught at various colls. in NY 1938–52. Head of mus. dept., Long Island Univ., 1957–68, prof. of comp. Mannes College, 1968. Most of his later works employ serial technique based on small pitch cells rather than on 12‐note rows. Also influenced by Jewish mus. traditions and harmonies. Works incl. 2 operas, ballet The Man from Midian (1942), incid. music for plays by G. von Wangenheim and Brecht, sym., several cantatas, tpt. conc., chamber mus. for various combinations, and songs.