A general term for cultural groups living in the wooded eastern parts of North America during the Formative. Woodland subsumes many local adaptations, but in general these were hunter‐gatherer communities whose subsistence base was augmented with some cultivation. Woodland communities used pottery and had elaborate toolmaking and artistic traditions. Burials were usually made in established cemeteries, often within large earthen mounds. Trade networks were extensive. Starting about 1000 bc, Woodland comprises a series of distinctive cultures, including Adena, Hopewellian, Mississippian, and Iroquoian. In some areas Woodland societies continued down to modern times. See early Woodland; late Woodland.