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work and text


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WORK AND TEXT

work and text

The Basic Reading Texts and Literary Work

Texts and Times Mapping the Changing Study of Work and Organizations

Beyond Genre: Closings and Relational Work in Text Messaging

The Battlefield in Text and Image: Remains and Relics in the Work of Cozette de Charmoy

Elias Ashmole: His Autobiographical and Historical Notes, his Correspondence, and Other Contemporary Sources Relating to his Life and Work, Vol. 4: Texts 1673–1701

Elias Ashmole: His Autobiographical and Historical Notes, his Correspondence, and Other Contemporary Sources Relating to his Life and Work, Vol. 2: Texts 1617–1660

Elias Ashmole: His Autobiographical and Historical Notes, his Correspondence, and Other Contemporary Sources Relating to his Life and Work, Vol. 3: Texts 1661–1672

The Political Work of a Spiritual Text: Sarah Wight, Henry Jessey, and The exceeding Riches of Grace

Edward Slavishak. Bodies of Work: Civic Display and Labor in Industrial Pittsburgh. (Body, Commodity, Text.) Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. 2008. Pp. x, 354. Cloth $89.95, paper $24.95

Text-encoding, Theories of the Text, and the ‘Work-Site’1 1 The thinking in this study has been stimulated by countless conversations with my collaborators in the successive Just In Time Markup (JITM) projects at the Australian Scholarly Editions Centre, Phill Berrie (the programmer), Graham Barwell (University of Wollongong), and Chris Tiffin (University of Queensland); and by, if anything, even more conversations on editorial theory and textual computing with Peter Shillingsburg and, to a lesser extent, with Peter Robinson (both, De Montfort University, Leicester), who generously allowed me to read unpublished work of theirs.

FURNIVALL, Frederick James (1825 - 1910), Hon. Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge; barrister; Founder and Director of Early English Text, Chaucer, Ballad, and New Shakespeare Societies; Founder of the Wyclif and Shelley Societies; Joint Founder of the Browning Society; editor of English MSS and Old Texts; worked with F. D. Maurice, J. M. Ludlow, T. Hughes, etc., in the Christian Socialist and Co-operative Movement, and at the Working Men’s College; was for ten years a captain in the Working Men’s College Rifle Volunteers, the 19th Middlesex

 

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French literary critic Roland Barthes proposed this distinction in the essay ‘De l'oeuvre au texte’ (1971), translated as ‘From Work to Text’ (1977), which together with Jacques Derrida's ‘La structure, le signe et le jeu dans le discoursdes sciences humaines’ (1966), translated as ‘Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences’ (1978), is generally regarded as one of the inaugural texts of post-structuralism, representing a sea change within Barthes's own thinking. Referring to the way Einstein's theory of relativity has necessitated that scientists take into account the relativity of their frame of reference, with the implication that there are no longer any absolutes in science (in their place are undecidable limit points), Barthes proposes that psychoanalysis, Marxism, and semiotics combined necessitate a similar kind of rethinking of the cultural object. This newly relativized cultural object—in which he includes the relations between readers, writers and critics—is what he wants to call text (he sometimes writes it as Text to underline the fact that it is an ontological distinction he is trying to make). In contrast, work refers to an older, Newtonian, conception of the cultural object, which is self-contained, singular and closed. He compares the distinction to the one Jacques Lacan makes between reality and the real: the work belongs to the order of reality inasmuch as it can be held in the hand, so to speak, whereas the text is of the same order as the real, which is to say it is a problematic or experimental field and not a concrete object. It is rather the limit through which a work must pass if it wants to attain what modernist critics praised as the new. The distinction between work and text restates and complicates the distinction Barthes previously made between the readerly (work) and writerly (text). See also readerly and writerly.

Further Reading:

M. Moriarty Roland Barthes (1991).

Subjects: Literary Theory and Cultural Studies.


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