In tantric Buddhism.certain deities are depicted in a ferocious and terrifying form. These forms have various layers of symbolic meaning. Most simply, they represent the vice of hatred (dveṣa), which is one of the three roots of evil (akuśala-mūla), and all the other negative emotions associated with it, such as anger. On another level they are a reminder that when properly channelled through the use of tantric practices, the misdirected psychic energy of negative emotions can be transformed into a more spiritually productive form and turned against the hatred itself in order to obliterate it. Each of the five Jinas has a wrathful (krodha) form, and these symbolize their victory over the various passions and desires. Known collectively as the ‘five kings of knowledge’ (vidyārāja), they are Acalanātha, Trailokavijaya, Kuṇḍalī, Yamāntaka.and Vajrayakṣa. In iconographic depictions such as maṇḍalas.Acalanātha appears in the centre, and the others to the east, south, west, and north in the order mentioned.