Samuel Wyatt

(1737—1807) architect and engineer

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English architect, the third son of Benjamin Wyatt (1709–72). As master-carpenter and later clerk of works at Kedleston, Derbys., he gained first-hand experience of working on a major work of architecture for an important architect, Robert Adam. He worked with his younger brother James on the design and construction of The Pantheon, Oxford Street, London (1769–72), which made James Wyatt's name. After this, he designed several country-houses in a Neo-Classical style, often with elliptical or circular rooms expressed as bowed projections. Good examples of his work include Doddington Hall (1777–98), Delamere House (1784—demolished 1939), and Tatton Park (1785–9—constructed by his nephew, L. W. Wyatt), all in Ches. He designed numerous model farm-buildings, lodges, and cottages, including nearly 50 at Holkham, Norfolk (1780–1807), the Demesne Farm, Doddington Hall, Ches. (c.1790), and he was a pioneer in the use of cast-iron construction. He designed the Albion Mills, Blackfriars, London (1783–6—destroyed 1791), the first mill in the world to be powered by steam-engines, and also one of the first to be constructed on a raft-foundation. He also patented designs for cast-iron bridges, warehouses, and other structures in 1800, and designed systems for constructing prefabricated timber hospitals for use abroad. Other works include lighthouses at Dungeness, Kent (1791), Flamborough Head, Yorks. (1806), and elsewhere many rectories (e.g. at Wrotham, Kent (1801–2), and Lutterworth, Leics. (1803) ) and other medium-sized country-houses, both new buildings and remodellings (e.g. Belmont House, Kent (1789–93), Somerley, Ringwood, Hants. (1792–5), and Hackwood Park, Hants. (1805–7); the Commissioner's House, Portsmonth Dockyard, Hants. (1784–5); and he built Trinity House, Tower Hill, London (1793–6—bombed 1940, and restored by Sir Albert Richardson in 1953). Towards the end of his life he was occupied with major works at Ramsgate Harbour, Kent (1794–1804—all demolished).

Colvin (1995);Placzek (ed.) (1982);J. Robinson (1979)

Subjects: Architecture.

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