An imaging technique used to study the structure and composition of objects or materials. The specimen is placed on a radiosensitive surface, usually a photographic plate or real‐time sensor, and then bombarded with short‐wavelength high‐energy electromagnetic radiation (X‐rays). The image is recorded as darker and lighter tones according to the intensity of the X‐rays that pass through the different parts of the sample material, the structure and composition of the material differentially absorbing X‐rays. X‐radiography is extensively used in archaeology to study metal objects, especially iron, where corrosion products mask the form of the original piece and any decoration that may once have been visible. It is also used to examine large objects prior to excavation under laboratory conditions (e.g. cremation urns; mummies), paintings and drawn images that have several layers to them, and human body parts and biological samples.