Neolithic communities occupying the middle Yangtze River valley in southern China c.3500–2600 bc, named after the type‐site of Xuejiagang, excavated in 1979–82 and 2000. Their material culture included such stone artefacts as knives, axes, adzes, arrowheads, and jade ornaments, together with flat‐bottomed, tripod, and foot‐ringed hand‐made ceramic vessels. The economy was based on rice cultivation, fishing, hunting, and some livestock husbandry. There is evidence of trade with the Liangzhu Culture to the east and, to a lesser extent, the Qujialing Culture to the west. Extensive inhumation cemeteries with graves neatly arranged in lines within more formal groups have been recognized.