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A town and district in the northern Shaanxi Province in China, which became the headquarters of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) after the Long March in 1935. An initial period of instability ended when hostilities with the National Revolutionary Army stopped, owing to the formation of the United Front in 1937. Thereafter, Yan'an Province was developed into a model Soviet through land reforms, rapidly improving social services (more schools and health centres), lower taxation, and political organization. This contrasted sharply with the inefficiency and graft of Chiang Kai‐shek's Guomindang government, and provided the basis for the CCP's growing popularity. Subsequently, during the Sino‐Japanese war, CCP membership increased from 20,000 to almost three million. The CCP's army, which avoided open warfare and pursued guerilla tactics instead, grew to number 1.5 million in this period. By 1945, more than ninety million people lived under Communist control. The Yan'an period, then, marked a pivotal and successful episode of Communist China, providing the foundation of CCP success in the Chinese Civil War.

Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

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