Liberal movement that developed the first constitutional ideology of the Ottoman Empire; influential from circa 1800 to 1876. Alliance of reformist ulama and intellectuals whose ideas were partially instrumental in inspiring the overthrow of Sultan Abdulaziz (r. 1861–76), though they never opposed the monarchical principle in theory. Contributed to the elaboration of the first Ottoman constitution (1876) and a short-lived parliament. Namik Kamel was a leading figure.
See also Tanzimat; Young Turks