Chu-tzu or Chu-ti (The Grand Master) was a fourth-century bce leader of the Moist school of Chinese philosophy, founded by Modi (Mo Ti) in the fifth century bce. The Moists followed a doctrine of universal love in opposition to the formalism of Confucianism (see Confucianism). The doctrine is contained in the text called the Mo-tzu and in the Chu-tzu, which contain a cosmology. The Grand Master apparently believed that the sky was made up of nine levels layered on top of each other, each divided from the other by a gate guarded by beasts. Beyond the space above the top sky there was absolute nothingness, an ultimate void (see Chinese entries).