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Wrongdoing against God, others, or self. Since the Middle Ages the term has been used to mean oppression and tyranny, particularly by rulers over their subjects. Frequently used as the opposite of justice, particularly in Islamic political treatises and books of counsel for princes and rulers. In jurisprudence, it refers to that which exceeds legal limits. In Shii tradition zulm expresses the traditional ethos of suffering, oppression, and tyranny under the Sunni community.

Subjects: Islam.

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