Iranian modernist, university professor, reformer, and major voice of the Islamic opposition in the pre- and post-1979 revolutionary eras. Founded or cofounded many professional Islamic organizations. Headed the supervisory committee for nationalization of Iranian oil. First prime minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran and member of Council of the Islamic Revolution. Elected to parliament in 1980. Policies represent a synthesis of nationalism, positivism, and Islam. Prior to 1979 revolution, emphasized unity of religion and politics.