(b Aachen, 1871; d Berlin, 1958). Ger. conductor and composer. First cond. posts in Aachen (1893–6) and Prague (1899–1906); from 1906 Kapellmeister, Royal Berlin Opera, becoming Generalmusikdirektor 1913–23, working for much of that period with R. Strauss, of whose operas he cond. several f.ps. in Berlin. Brief spell in Vienna, then cond. (jointly with Kleiber) Berlin State Opera 1926–37, until removal by Nazis. Cond. Riga 1937–41 and Stockholm 1941–6. Returned to Berlin Städtische Oper 1949–53. Composer of 5 operas, sym.-poems, and other works.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music in Oxford Reference.