after graduation from Yale (1919) became an expatriate in France, where he wrote The Eater of Darkness (1929), a surrealist novel. Returning to the U.S., he turned to the American background in The Outlaw Years (1930), a history of the Natchez Trace pirates. Later fiction includes Yesterday's Burdens (1933), about a “modern Everyman” in New York City; Bitter Season (1946), about New York during World War II; Wisteria Cottage (1948), concerning a man with a Messiah complex; and Farther Shore (1955), about the pathetic love affair of a Hungarian resident in New York. All the Year Round (1943) and Hour After Westerly (1957) collect stories. The View from Here (1960) is a work of reminiscences.