A symbol for what is evil: it encompasses the underworld (Ps. 143: 3), but is not impenetrable by God (Ps. 139: 12). It is the sphere of punishment (Ps. 35: 6) and will therefore be part of the experience of the day of the Lord which the prophets predicted (e.g. Amos 5: 18), thereby overturning popular expectation. In the Manual of Discipline of the Dead Sea scrolls there is an exposition of two spirits contending for victory who are called the Angel of Light and the Angel of Darkness; and a similar contrast is a theme of the gospel of John (John 3: 19).
Subjects: Biblical Studies.