A machine for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. They are quiet, clean, and have a high efficiency (75–95%). They work on the principle that a current passing through a coil within a magnetic field will experience forces that can be used to rotate the coil. In the induction motor, alternating current is fed to a stationary coil (the stator), which both creates the magnetic field and induces a current in the rotating coil ( rotor), which it surrounds. The advantage of this kind of motor is that current does not have to be fed through a commutator to a moving part. In the synchronous motor, alternating current fed to the stator produces a magnetic field that rotates and locks with the field of the rotor, in this case an independent magnet, causing the rotor to rotate at the same speed as the stator field rotates. The rotor is either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet fed by a direct current through slip rings. In the universal motor, current is fed to the stator and, through a commutator, to the rotor. In the series-wound motor the two are in series; in the shunt-wound motor they are in parallel. These motors can be used with either a.c. or d.c. but some small motors use a permanent magnet as the stator and require d.c. for the rotor (via the commutator). See also linear motor.