(1914–80). Novelist. Of Russian-Jewish origin, spending his childhood and early adolescence in Vilnius and Warsaw, he obtained French nationality in 1935. The influence of his early cultural, social, and ethnic background marks many of his works, particularly his first novel, Éducation européenne (1945), his last, Les Cerfs-volants (1980), and the most autobiographical, La Promesse de l'aube (1960).
From The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French in Oxford Reference.