A family of zinc finger transcription factors that bind to the ‘GATA’ nucleotide motif. GATA1 protein (NFE1, Eryfl, GF-1, or EFya, 413 aa) regulates the switch from fetal to adult haemoglobin in conjunction with friend of GATA1 (FOG1, 1004 aa). Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked dyserythropoietic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. GATA2 is similar to GATA1 and is expressed in haematopoietic progenitors and also in nonhaematopoietic embryonic stem cells. GATA-3 is abundantly expressed in the T-cell lineage and is involved in T-cell receptor gene activation and necessary for the expression of many T-cell-derived cytokines. Haploinsufficiency in GATA-3 in humans leads to HDR syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal anomaly syndrome). GATA4 is expressed in adult vertebrate heart, gut epithelium, and gonads; mutations in this gene have been associated with cardiac septal defects. GATA5 expression is associated with differentiation in a human colon cancer cell line. GATA6 has an expression pattern similar to GATA4 but is also found in lung and liver. It may regulate the differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. GATA-like protein-1 (GLP1, 271 aa) acts as a transcriptional repressor of GATA6 and is important in germ cell development in the gonads.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.