heterodox theologian. Entered as an oblate at Fulda, he later sought to leave the monastic life. He elaborated an extreme doctrine of predestination, according to which the chosen are predestined to blessedness but others to eternal fire, though not to sin. He was ordained by a chorepiscopus and propagated his views in Italy and the Balkans. In 848 he returned to Germany and at the Synod of Mainz his teaching was condemned. He was sent to Hincmar, Abp. of Reims, and at the Synod of Quiercy in 849 he was again condemned, deprived of his orders, and sentenced to imprisonment. He replied to a pastoral letter of Hincmar with the statement of his views known as the ‘Confessio prolixior’. He also defended the use of the phrase ‘trina deitas’ against Hincmar and took part in the Eucharistic controversy raised by Paschasius Radbertus.