Acronym of Hajji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah. Indonesian religious scholar and author of more than a hundred works of fiction, politics, history, biography, Islamic doctrine, ethics, mysticism, and tafsir. Most famous religious scholar in Malay-speaking world. Leading figure in the revolutionary struggle for national independence in West Sumatra, 1945–49. Sought moral messages in history to be applied to the present. Concerned for human suffering and faith in transitional society. Wrote an influential interpretation of the Indonesian national ideology, Pancasila, making the first principle the recognition of the oneness of God (tawhid).
Subjects: Islam — Philosophy.