A word derived from Persian, Greek, and Muslim renderings of the Sanskrit term for the Sindhu (subsequently known as the Indus), designating the land surrounding, and to the east of that river. It is now used as a name for the modern Republic of India, although the official name for the latter is Bhārata, ‘[the land of] the descendants of Bharata’. As both noun and adjective (e.g. ‘Indian religions’) the term is frequently used by historians and others to encompass the ‘Indian subcontinent’ before Partition (1947)—i.e. to include modern Pakistan, Bangladesh, and sometimes the Himālayan states, such as Nepal.