Moroccan intellectual, writer, and professor of Arab and Islamic philosophy. Wrote over a dozen books and numerous articles focusing on contemporary Arab thought, education, sociology, and Arab and Islamic philosophy. Contributed a fresh contextual analysis of Ibn Khaldun's ideas. Views Arab and Islamic philosophy as having evolved in relation to other philosophies, particularly Greek, which Muslim philosophers used for ideological objectives to reconcile reason and text, religion and philosophy, the temporal and spiritual. Critical of contemporary Arab thought for being ahistorical and unable to reconcile the dichotomy of traditions and modernity.