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Achmad Sukarno (1901—1970) Indonesian statesman, President 1945–67



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Diplomatic and military confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia (1963–66). It centred on the formation of the Federation of Malaysia (1963), which President Sukarno saw as a Western-inspired ploy to oppose anti-colonist forces in south-east Asia. Asserting that the Federation was part of a British plot against Indonesia, Sukarno launched a guerrilla war in Malaysia's Bornean territories, Sarawak and Sabah, in April 1963, hoping for support from local Chinese communist elements. His ‘confrontation’ policy, however, only served to increase support for the new federal arrangements within the Malaysian states (only Brunei, with its massive oil reserves, remaining aloof). It led to increased disaffection in the Indonesian army which ultimately contributed to his downfall. With the guerrilla forces defeated by Malaysians with British, Australian, and New Zealand help, Sukarno's successor General Suharto ended Konfrontasi in 1966.

Subjects: World History.

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