Chinese statesman. He formed the regional Anhui army to help suppress the Taiping Rebellion. In 1870 he became governor‐general of Zhili (or Chihli) and High Commissioner for the Northern Ocean, becoming responsible for Chinese foreign affairs until 1895. Recognizing the superiority of foreign military technology, he became the leader of the Self‐Strengthening Movement, establishing arsenals and factories and creating the Beiyang fleet (China's first modern navy). His reforms were piecemeal, however, and his prestige suffered when his forces were defeated in the Sino‐Japanese War.
Subjects: World History.