Major Muslim leader in China in the eighteenth century. Born in the Muslim community in Gansu, in northwest China, he traveled and studied in the Middle East, especially in Yemen and in Mecca and Medina. He was initiated into the Naqshbandi tariqah and returned to China in 1761 determined to purify Islamic life. His renewal movement, called the “New Teaching,” practiced loudly spoken rather than silent litany and advocated reform of Muslim life. He came into conflict with Muslim and Chinese imperial establishments, and a rebellion broke out, during which he was killed by imperial forces.