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The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, one of several conventions that are the responsibility of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It incorporates the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (OILPOL), which came into force in 1958 as an IMO convention, and the 1973 MARPOL Convention which was agreed after the tanker the Torrey Canyon ran aground in 1967, causing the largest oil spillage ever recorded up to that time. The 1973 MARPOL Convention was more stringent than OILPOL, which was concerned with pollution from routine tanker operations, as it included regulations against pollution from ships of oil, chemicals, harmful substances carried in packaged form, sewage, garbage, and air pollution. The 1973 MARPOL Convention had not been ratified when, in response to a spate of tanker accidents in 1976–7, the IMO held another conference in 1978 which agreed to a second convention. This absorbed the first convention as well as adopting measures affecting tanker design and operation, and was subsequently ratified. Its annexes dealing with oil and chemicals came into force in 1983, garbage in 1988, and sewage in 2003, and the one on air pollution from ships entered into force in May 2005.

See also environmental issues.

See also environmental issues.

Subjects: Maritime History.

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